Characterization methods and instruments

The prepared Ag-NPs were characterized by using the X–ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT–IR) spectroscopy and zeta potential measurements. The XRD patterns were recorded at a scan speed of 2° min–1. Meanwhile, the structures of the produced Ag-NPs were examined using Shimadzu PXRD–6000, powder X–ray diffraction. Moreover, TEM observations were carried out using the Hitachi H–7100 electron microscopy, whereas the particle size distributions were determined using the UTHSCSA Image Tool software (Version 3.00). To make sure the formation of Ag-NPs, the colloids solutions were tested for their optical Characterization methods and instruments absorption property using a Shimadzu H.UV, 1650 PC UV–visible spectrophotometer over the range of 300 to 700 nm. The FT–IR spectra were however recorded over the range of 200–4000 cm−1 utilizing the Series 100 Perkin Elmer FT–IR 1650 spectrophotometer. The zeta potential measurements were also performed using a Zetasizer Nano–ZS (Malvern Instruments).

Competing interests

We declare that we have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

KS carried out the synthesis, and characterization of the compounds, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data collected. SDJ carried out the antibacterial experiments. MBA and PS involved in drafting of manuscript, revision of draft for important Characterization methods and instruments intellectual content and give final approval of the version to be published. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.


The authors thank from University Putra Malaysia (UPM) for its financial support (RUGS, Project No. 9199840). The authors are also grateful to the staff of the Department of Chemistry UPM for their help in this research, Institute of Bioscience (IBS/UPM) for technical assistance.


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